УСЛОВИЯ И ПРЕДЕЛЫ ПРИМЕНЕНИЯ СОЛИДАРНОЙ ОТВЕТСТВЕННОСТИ ДЛЯ РЕШЕНИЯ ПРОБЛЕМЫ АЛЬТЕРНАТИВНОЙ КАУЗАЛЬНОСТИ В ДЕЛИКТНОМ ПРАВЕ: СРАВНИТЕЛЬНО-ПРАВОВОЙ АСПЕКТ

https://doi.org/10.24031/1992-2043-2022-22-3-210-241

В настоящей работе анализируются несколько современных нормативных и правоприменительных подходов, обосновывающих солидарную ответственность альтернативных делинквентов в Германии, Австрии, Франции, Англии, США и Канаде, после чего рассматривается наиболее сложная, но, как представляется, наиболее последовательная теория солидарной ответственности альтернативных делинквентов, которая наилучшим образом встраивается в систему и функции современного (в основе своей по-прежнему деонтологически-ориентированного) деликтного права. По окончании анализа излагаются выводы и предлагаются общее правило и условия его применения.

Ключевые слова: альтернативная причинная неопределенность; альтернативная причинно-следственная связь; причинно-следственная неопределенность; солидарная ответственность.

References

Алоян А.Э. Модели абсолютной защиты обязательственных прав [Aloyan A.E. The Models of absolute Protection of Contractual Rights] (in Russian) // The law. 2015. No. 8.

Байбак В.В. Причинная связь как условие договорной ответственности: сравнительно-правовой очерк [Baibak V.V. Causation as a Condition of Contractual liability: a Comparative Essay] (in Russian) // Bulletin of the Supreme Commercial Court of the Russian Federation. 2014. No. 6.

Гурвич М.А. Право на иск [Gurvich M.A. Entitlement for the lawsuit] (in Russian). Moscow; leningrad: Publishing House of the academy of Sciences of the USSR, 1949. Гутников О.В. Деликтная ответственность за нарушение относительных прав: перспективы развития в российском праве [Gutnikov O.V. Tort liability for violation of Relative Rights: Prospects for Development in the Russian law] (in Russian) // The law. 2017. No. 1.

Епихина Д.О. Ответственность за совместно причиненный вред [Epikhina D.O. Responsibility for Jointly Caused Harm] (in Russian) // Herald of Economic Justice of the Russian Federation. 2018. No. 8.

Карапетов А.Г., Косарев А.С. Стандарты доказывания: аналитическое и эмпирическое исследование [Karapetov A.G., Kosarev A.S. Standards of Proof: analytical and Empirical Research] (in Russian) // Herald of Economic Justice of the Russian Federation. appendix to the Monthly Magazine. 2019. No. 5.

Коциоль Х. Гибкая система – золотая середина в законодательстве и доктрине [Koziol H. The Flexible System – the Happy Medium in legislation and Theory] (in Russian) // Civil law Review. 2016. No. 6.

Кривцов А.С. Общее учение об убытках [Krivtsov A.S. The General Doctrine of losses] (in Russian). Yuriev: K. Matthiesen’s Printing House, 1902.

Лухманов М.И. Установление фактической причинной связи в деликте [Lukhmanov M.I. Establishment of the Factual Causation in Tort] (in Russian) // Civil law Review. 2021. No. 5.

Михайлов В.С. Концепция фактической причинной связи и некоторые проблемы ее применения [Mikhailov V.S. Concept of Factual Causation and Several issues of its Practical application] (in Russian) // Civil law Review. 2018. No. 3.

Михайлов В.С. Теории причинно-следственной связи и установление пределов ответственности [Mikhailov V.S. Theories of Causation and Establishing the limits of liability] (in Russian) // Civil law Review. 2019. No. 4.

Назариков С.В. Некоторые теоретические и практические аспекты причинно-следственной связи в контексте деликтной ответственности [Nazarikov S.V. Some Theoretical and Practical aspects of Causation in the Context of Tort liability] (in Russian) // Civil law Review. 2016. No. 6.

Пневмокониозы // Большая Медицинская Энциклопедия (БМЭ) / под ред. Б.В. Петровского. 3-е издание. Т. 19 [Pneumoconioses // Grand Medical Encyclopedia (GME) / Ed. by B.v. Petrovsky. 3rd Edition. vol. 19] (in Russian). URl: https:// бмэ.орг/index.php/пневмокониозы (date of reference: 20.06.2022).

Сераков В.В. Теория адекватной причинности как способ ограничения размера причиненных убытков [Serakov V.V. The Theory of adequate Causation as a Manner of limitation of Damages] (in Russian) // Civil law Review. 2014. No. 5.

Симолин А.А. Основания гражданской ответственности за вред и убытки [Simolin A.A. Grounds for Civil liability for Harm and loss] (in Russian). Kazan: University Printing House, 1905.

Синицын С.А. Абсолютная защита относительных прав: причины, последствия и соотношение с принятой классификацией субъективных прав [Sinitsyn S.A. Peremptory Defense of Relative Rights: Causes, Consequences and its Relation- ship to Conventional Classification of Subjective Rights] (in Russian) // Civil law Review. 2015. No. 1.

Спиридонова Н.Б. Теории причинно-следственной связи: анализ содержания, соотношение с основными подходами зарубежной доктрины [Spiridonova N.B. Theories of Causation: analysis of Content, Relation to Basic approaches of Foreign Doctrine] (in Russian) // Journal of RSPl. 2018. No. 3.

Тололаева Н.В. Пассивные солидарные обязательства: российский подход и континентально-европейская традиция: монография [Tololaeva N.V. Passive Solidary Obligations: Russian approach and Continental European Tradition: a Monograph] (in Russian). Moscow: Statut, 2020.

Чупрунов А.С. Ответственность третьего лица за вмешательство в договорные отношения. Иностранный опыт и российские перспективы [Chuprunov A.S. liability of a Third Party for interference in Contractual Relationships. Foreign Expe- rience and Russian Perspectives] (in Russian) // Journal of RSPl. 2018. No. 1.

Basic Questions of Tort law from a Comparative Perspective / Ed. by H. Koziol. wien: Jan Sramek, 2015.

Bernstein H. Civil liability for Pure Economic loss Under american Tort law // american Journal of Comparative law. 1998. vol. 46. iss. Suppl. 1.

Bydlinski F. aktuelle Streitfragen um die alternative Kausalität // Festschrift für Günther Beitzke zum 70. Geburtstag am 26. april 1979 / Hrsg. von O. Sandrock. Berlin; Boston: De Gruyter, 2020.

Causation in European Tort law / Ed. by M. infantino, E. Zervogianni. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017.

Digest of European Tort law. vol. 1: Essential Cases on Natural Causation / Ed. by B. winiger. H. Koziol, B.a. Koch, R. Zimmermann. wien: Springer, 2007.

French Civil liability in Comparative Perspective / Ed. by J. Borghetti, S. whit- taker. Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2019.

Geistfeld M.A. The Doctrinal Unity of alternative liability and Market-Share liability // University of Pennsylvania law Review. 2006. vol. 155. iss. 2.

German Civil Code: Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch (BGB). vol. i: Books 1–3: §§ 1–1296. article-by-article Commentary / Ed. by G. Dannemann, R. Schulze, J. watson (assistant Ed.). Munich: C.H. Beck; Baden-Baden: Nomos, 2020.

Gordley J. Foundations of Private law: Property, Tort, Contract, Unjust Enrichment. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2019.

Hart H.L.A., Honore T. Causation in the law. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985.

Holcapek T. Causation after Fairchild // Common law Review. 2003. vol. 4. iss. 1.

Honore T. Necessary and Sufficient Conditions in Tort law // Philosophical Foundations of Tort law / Ed. by D.G. Owen. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995.

Jansen N. The Structure of Tort law. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2021.

Johnson V.R. Mastering Torts: a Student’s Guide to the law of Torts. 6th ed. Durham: Carolina academic Press, 2018.

Kötz H., Wagner G. Deliktsrecht. 13. aufl. München: vahlen, 2016.

ВЕСТНИК ГРАЖДАНСКОГО ПРАВА No 3 2022 ТОМ 22 240

Koziol H. Basic Questions of Tort law from a Germanic Perspective. Wien: Jan Sramek, 2012.

Kruse C. alternative Kausalität im Deliktsrecht: Eine historische und verglei- chende Untersuchung. Berlin: lit, 2006.

McBride N.J., Bagshaw R. Tort law. 6th ed. Harlow: Pearson Education limited, 2018.

McGuinness T. Mesothelioma: Civil Court Claims. Briefing Paper Number 04450, 3 august 2016 (https://researchbriefings.files.parliament.uk/documents/SN04450/ SN04450.pdf).

Mullis A., Oliphant K. Torts. 4th ed. london: Palgrave Macmillan law Masters, 2011.

Oliphant K. Causation in Cases of Evidential Uncertainty: Juridical Techniques and Fundamental issues // Chicago-Kent law Review. 2016. vol. 91. iss. 2.

Oliphant K. Uncertain Factual Causation in the Third Restatement: Some Comparative Notes // william Mitchell law Review. 2011. vol. 37. iss. 3.

Osborne P.H. The law of Torts. 5th ed. Toronto: irwin law, 2015.

Peel W.E., Goudkamp J. winfield and Jolowicz on Tort. 20th ed. london: Sweet & Maxwell, Thomson Reuters, 2020.

Perspectives on Causation / Ed. by R. Goldberg. Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2011.

Principles, Definitions and Model Rules of European Private law. Draft Common Frame of Reference / Ed. by C. von Bar, E. Clive and H. Schulte-Nölke. Full Edition. Munich: Sellier, 2009.

Pure Economic loss in Europe / Ed. by M. Bussani, v.v. Palmer. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Sharkey C.M. Tort liability for Pure Economic loss: a Perspective from the United States and Some Comparative European insights // Journal of European Tort law. 2016. vol. 7. No. 3.

Steel S. Proof of Causation in Tort law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015.

Turton G. Evidential Uncertainty in Causation in Negligence. london: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2016.

Uncertain Causation in Tort law / Ed. by M. Martin-Casals, D.M. Papayannis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016.

Unification of Tort law: Causation / Ed. by J. Spier. Hague: Kluwer law international, 2000.

Unification of Tort law: Multiple Tortfeasors / Ed. by w.v.H. Rogers. Hague: Kluwer law international, 2004.

van Dam C. European Tort law. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.

von Tuhr A. allgemeiner Teil des Schweizerischen Obligationenrechts. 1. Halb- band. Tübingen: J.С.В. Mohr (Paul Siebeck), 1924.

Weekes R. Not Seeing the wood for the Trees – Risk analysis as an alternative to Factual Causation in Fairchild // Nottingham law Journal. 2003. vol. 12. iss. 2. Wright R.W. Causation in Tort law // California law Review. 1985. vol. 73. iss. 6.

ИНОСТРАННАЯ НАУКА ЧАСТНОГО ПРАВА 241

Wright R.W., Puppe I. Causation: linguistic, Philosophical, legal and Economic // Chicago-Kent law Review. 2016. vol. 91. iss. 2.

Information about the author

Lukhmanov M.I. (Moscow, Russia) – Master of Private law (Russian School of Private law), PhD Student, Department of Civil law, law Faculty, lomonosov Moscow State University (1 leninskie Gory, Bldg. 13 (4th education building), GSP-1, Moscow, 119991, Russia; e-mail: m.lukhmanov@yandex.ru).

CONDITIONS AND LIMITS OF APPLICATION OF THE JOINT AND SEVERAL LIABILITY FOR SOLVING THE PROBLEM OF ALTERNATIVE CAUSATION IN TORT LAW:

A COMPARATIVE LAW PERSPECTIVE

https://doi.org/10.24031/1992-2043-2022-22-3-210-241

The paper analyzes several modern normative and case law approaches justifying the joint and several liability of alternative tortfeasors in Germany, Austria, France, England, the USA and Canada. Thereafter the most complex but arguably the most consistent theory of joint and several liability of alternative tortfeasors is examined, which is best integrated into the system and functions of modern (basically, still deontologicallyoriented) tort law. At the end of the analysis, conclusions are presented and a general rule and conditions for its application are proposed.

Keywords: alternative causation; causal uncertainty; solidary liability; joint and several liability.

References

Алоян А.Э. Модели абсолютной защиты обязательственных прав [Aloyan A.E. The Models of absolute Protection of Contractual Rights] (in Russian) // The law. 2015. No. 8.

Байбак В.В. Причинная связь как условие договорной ответственности: сравнительно-правовой очерк [Baibak V.V. Causation as a Condition of Contractual liability: a Comparative Essay] (in Russian) // Bulletin of the Supreme Commercial Court of the Russian Federation. 2014. No. 6.

Гурвич М.А. Право на иск [Gurvich M.A. Entitlement for the lawsuit] (in Russian). Moscow; leningrad: Publishing House of the academy of Sciences of the USSR, 1949. Гутников О.В. Деликтная ответственность за нарушение относительных прав: перспективы развития в российском праве [Gutnikov O.V. Tort liability for violation of Relative Rights: Prospects for Development in the Russian law] (in Russian) // The law. 2017. No. 1.

Епихина Д.О. Ответственность за совместно причиненный вред [Epikhina D.O. Responsibility for Jointly Caused Harm] (in Russian) // Herald of Economic Justice of the Russian Federation. 2018. No. 8.

Карапетов А.Г., Косарев А.С. Стандарты доказывания: аналитическое и эмпирическое исследование [Karapetov A.G., Kosarev A.S. Standards of Proof: analytical and Empirical Research] (in Russian) // Herald of Economic Justice of the Russian Federation. appendix to the Monthly Magazine. 2019. No. 5.

Коциоль Х. Гибкая система – золотая середина в законодательстве и доктрине [Koziol H. The Flexible System – the Happy Medium in legislation and Theory] (in Russian) // Civil law Review. 2016. No. 6.

Кривцов А.С. Общее учение об убытках [Krivtsov A.S. The General Doctrine of losses] (in Russian). Yuriev: K. Matthiesen’s Printing House, 1902.

Лухманов М.И. Установление фактической причинной связи в деликте [Lukhmanov M.I. Establishment of the Factual Causation in Tort] (in Russian) // Civil law Review. 2021. No. 5.

Михайлов В.С. Концепция фактической причинной связи и некоторые проблемы ее применения [Mikhailov V.S. Concept of Factual Causation and Several issues of its Practical application] (in Russian) // Civil law Review. 2018. No. 3.

Михайлов В.С. Теории причинно-следственной связи и установление пределов ответственности [Mikhailov V.S. Theories of Causation and Establishing the limits of liability] (in Russian) // Civil law Review. 2019. No. 4.

Назариков С.В. Некоторые теоретические и практические аспекты причинно-следственной связи в контексте деликтной ответственности [Nazarikov S.V. Some Theoretical and Practical aspects of Causation in the Context of Tort liability] (in Russian) // Civil law Review. 2016. No. 6.

Пневмокониозы // Большая Медицинская Энциклопедия (БМЭ) / под ред. Б.В. Петровского. 3-е издание. Т. 19 [Pneumoconioses // Grand Medical Encyclopedia (GME) / Ed. by B.v. Petrovsky. 3rd Edition. vol. 19] (in Russian). URl: https:// бмэ.орг/index.php/пневмокониозы (date of reference: 20.06.2022).

Сераков В.В. Теория адекватной причинности как способ ограничения размера причиненных убытков [Serakov V.V. The Theory of adequate Causation as a Manner of limitation of Damages] (in Russian) // Civil law Review. 2014. No. 5.

Симолин А.А. Основания гражданской ответственности за вред и убытки [Simolin A.A. Grounds for Civil liability for Harm and loss] (in Russian). Kazan: University Printing House, 1905.

Синицын С.А. Абсолютная защита относительных прав: причины, последствия и соотношение с принятой классификацией субъективных прав [Sinitsyn S.A. Peremptory Defense of Relative Rights: Causes, Consequences and its Relation- ship to Conventional Classification of Subjective Rights] (in Russian) // Civil law Review. 2015. No. 1.

Спиридонова Н.Б. Теории причинно-следственной связи: анализ содержания, соотношение с основными подходами зарубежной доктрины [Spiridonova N.B. Theories of Causation: analysis of Content, Relation to Basic approaches of Foreign Doctrine] (in Russian) // Journal of RSPl. 2018. No. 3.

Тололаева Н.В. Пассивные солидарные обязательства: российский подход и континентально-европейская традиция: монография [Tololaeva N.V. Passive Solidary Obligations: Russian approach and Continental European Tradition: a Monograph] (in Russian). Moscow: Statut, 2020.

Чупрунов А.С. Ответственность третьего лица за вмешательство в договорные отношения. Иностранный опыт и российские перспективы [Chuprunov A.S. liability of a Third Party for interference in Contractual Relationships. Foreign Expe- rience and Russian Perspectives] (in Russian) // Journal of RSPl. 2018. No. 1.

Basic Questions of Tort law from a Comparative Perspective / Ed. by H. Koziol. wien: Jan Sramek, 2015.

Bernstein H. Civil liability for Pure Economic loss Under american Tort law // american Journal of Comparative law. 1998. vol. 46. iss. Suppl. 1.

Bydlinski F. aktuelle Streitfragen um die alternative Kausalität // Festschrift für Günther Beitzke zum 70. Geburtstag am 26. april 1979 / Hrsg. von O. Sandrock. Berlin; Boston: De Gruyter, 2020.

Causation in European Tort law / Ed. by M. infantino, E. Zervogianni. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017.

Digest of European Tort law. vol. 1: Essential Cases on Natural Causation / Ed. by B. winiger. H. Koziol, B.a. Koch, R. Zimmermann. wien: Springer, 2007.

French Civil liability in Comparative Perspective / Ed. by J. Borghetti, S. whit- taker. Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2019.

Geistfeld M.A. The Doctrinal Unity of alternative liability and Market-Share liability // University of Pennsylvania law Review. 2006. vol. 155. iss. 2.

German Civil Code: Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch (BGB). vol. i: Books 1–3: §§ 1–1296. article-by-article Commentary / Ed. by G. Dannemann, R. Schulze, J. watson (assistant Ed.). Munich: C.H. Beck; Baden-Baden: Nomos, 2020.

Gordley J. Foundations of Private law: Property, Tort, Contract, Unjust Enrichment. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2019.

Hart H.L.A., Honore T. Causation in the law. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985.

Holcapek T. Causation after Fairchild // Common law Review. 2003. vol. 4. iss. 1.

Honore T. Necessary and Sufficient Conditions in Tort law // Philosophical Foundations of Tort law / Ed. by D.G. Owen. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995.

Jansen N. The Structure of Tort law. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2021.

Johnson V.R. Mastering Torts: a Student’s Guide to the law of Torts. 6th ed. Durham: Carolina academic Press, 2018.

Kötz H., Wagner G. Deliktsrecht. 13. aufl. München: vahlen, 2016.

ВЕСТНИК ГРАЖДАНСКОГО ПРАВА No 3 2022 ТОМ 22 240

Koziol H. Basic Questions of Tort law from a Germanic Perspective. Wien: Jan Sramek, 2012.

Kruse C. alternative Kausalität im Deliktsrecht: Eine historische und verglei- chende Untersuchung. Berlin: lit, 2006.

McBride N.J., Bagshaw R. Tort law. 6th ed. Harlow: Pearson Education limited, 2018.

McGuinness T. Mesothelioma: Civil Court Claims. Briefing Paper Number 04450, 3 august 2016 (https://researchbriefings.files.parliament.uk/documents/SN04450/ SN04450.pdf).

Mullis A., Oliphant K. Torts. 4th ed. london: Palgrave Macmillan law Masters, 2011.

Oliphant K. Causation in Cases of Evidential Uncertainty: Juridical Techniques and Fundamental issues // Chicago-Kent law Review. 2016. vol. 91. iss. 2.

Oliphant K. Uncertain Factual Causation in the Third Restatement: Some Comparative Notes // william Mitchell law Review. 2011. vol. 37. iss. 3.

Osborne P.H. The law of Torts. 5th ed. Toronto: irwin law, 2015.

Peel W.E., Goudkamp J. winfield and Jolowicz on Tort. 20th ed. london: Sweet & Maxwell, Thomson Reuters, 2020.

Perspectives on Causation / Ed. by R. Goldberg. Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2011.

Principles, Definitions and Model Rules of European Private law. Draft Common Frame of Reference / Ed. by C. von Bar, E. Clive and H. Schulte-Nölke. Full Edition. Munich: Sellier, 2009.

Pure Economic loss in Europe / Ed. by M. Bussani, v.v. Palmer. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Sharkey C.M. Tort liability for Pure Economic loss: a Perspective from the United States and Some Comparative European insights // Journal of European Tort law. 2016. vol. 7. No. 3.

Steel S. Proof of Causation in Tort law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015.

Turton G. Evidential Uncertainty in Causation in Negligence. london: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2016.

Uncertain Causation in Tort law / Ed. by M. Martin-Casals, D.M. Papayannis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016.

Unification of Tort law: Causation / Ed. by J. Spier. Hague: Kluwer law international, 2000.

Unification of Tort law: Multiple Tortfeasors / Ed. by w.v.H. Rogers. Hague: Kluwer law international, 2004.

van Dam C. European Tort law. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.

von Tuhr A. allgemeiner Teil des Schweizerischen Obligationenrechts. 1. Halb- band. Tübingen: J.С.В. Mohr (Paul Siebeck), 1924.

Weekes R. Not Seeing the wood for the Trees – Risk analysis as an alternative to Factual Causation in Fairchild // Nottingham law Journal. 2003. vol. 12. iss. 2. Wright R.W. Causation in Tort law // California law Review. 1985. vol. 73. iss. 6.

ИНОСТРАННАЯ НАУКА ЧАСТНОГО ПРАВА 241

Wright R.W., Puppe I. Causation: linguistic, Philosophical, legal and Economic // Chicago-Kent law Review. 2016. vol. 91. iss. 2.

Information about the author

Lukhmanov M.I. (Moscow, Russia) – Master of Private law (Russian School of Private law), PhD Student, Department of Civil law, law Faculty, lomonosov Moscow State University (1 leninskie Gory, Bldg. 13 (4th education building), GSP-1, Moscow, 119991, Russia; e-mail: m.lukhmanov@yandex.ru).