НЕОБХОДИМОСТЬ ОТНЕСЕНИЯ ВРЕДА НА ЛИЦО,
КОТОРОМУ ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКИ ЛЕГЧЕ НЕСТИ
ЕГО ПОСЛЕДСТВИЯ, КАК АРГУМЕНТ ДЛЯ РЕШЕНИЯ
ПРОБЛЕМЫ АЛЬТЕРНАТИВНОЙ КАУЗАЛЬНОСТИ
В ДЕЛИКТНОМ ПРАВЕ

М.И. ЛУХМАНОВ,
магистр частного права (РШЧП),
аспирант кафедры гражданского права юридического факультета
МГУ им. М.В. Ломоносова


https://doi.org/10.24031/1992-2043-2022-22-1-88-107


Настоящая статья посвящена критическому анализу тезиса о необходимости отнесения вреда на лицо, которому экономически легче нести его последствия, применительно к основной области его приложения в цивилистическом дискурсе de lege lata – объяснению феномена строгой (безвиновной) ответственности в деликтном праве. Обосновывается неприменимость основных теорий, вытекающих из этого тезиса, для решения проблемы альтернативной причинной неопределенности, несмотря на периодическое использование данного аргумента в судебной практике.
 

Ключевые слова: альтернативная причинная неопределенность; альтернативная причинно-следственная связь; причинно-следственная неопределенность; строгая ответственность; страхование ответственности.

References

Аристотель. Этика / пер. с древнегреч. Э.Л. Радлова по изд. 1884 г. [Aristotle.
Ethics / Trans. from Ancient Greek by E.L. Radlov] (in Russian). Moscow: Eksmo-
Press, 2019.
Епихина Д.О. Ответственность за совместно причиненный вред [Epikhina D.O.
Liability for Joint Harm] (in Russian) // Bulletin of Economic Justice of the Russian
Federation. 2018. No. 8.
Кривцов А.С. Общее учение об убытках [Krivtsov A.S. The General Doctrine of
Losses] (in Russian). Yuriev: K. Matthiesen Printing House, 1902.
Михайлов В.С. Концепция фактической причинной связи и некоторые про-
блемы ее применения [Mikhailov V.S. Concept of Factual Causation and Several
Issues of Its Practical Application] (in Russian) // Civil Law Review. 2018. No. 3.
Назариков С.В. Некоторые теоретические и практические аспекты причинно-
следственной связи в контексте деликтной ответственности [Nazarikov S.V. Some
Theoretical and Practical Aspects of Causation in the Context of Tort Liability] (in
Russian) // Civil Law Review. 2016. No. 6.
Новгородцев П.И., Покровский И.А. О праве на существование: социально-
философские этюды П.И. Новгородцева, профессора Московского университета,
и И.А. Покровского, профессора С.-Петербургского университета [Novgorodtsev P.I.,
Pokrovskii I.A. On the Right to Exist: Socio-Philosophical Studies of P.I. Novgorodtsev,
Professor at Moscow University, and I.A. Pokrovskii, Professor at St. Petersburg University]
(in Russian). St. Petersburg; Moscow: M.O. Wolf’s Association Publ., 1911.
Покровский И.А. Возмещение вреда и разложение его: дилеммы современно-
го гражданского права в области ответственности за вред и убытки [Pokrovskii I.A.
Compensation for Harm and its Decomposition: Dilemmas of Modern Civil Law in
the Field of Liability for Harm and Losses] (in Russian) // Law Review. 1899. No. 9.
Покровский И.А. Основные проблемы гражданского права [Pokrovskii I.A. Main
Problems of Civil Law] (in Russian). Petrograd: Legal Book Warehouse “Pravo” Publ.,
1917.
Симолин А.А. Основания гражданской ответственности за вред и убытки [Simolin
A.A. Grounds for Civil Liability for Harm and Loss] (in Russian). Kazan: University
Printing House, 1905.
Соловьев В.С. Свобода воли – свобода выбора [Soloviov V.S. Free Will Is Freedom
of Choice] (in Russian) // Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона.
Т. XXIX: Сахар – Семь мудрецов [Encyclopedic Dictionary of Brockhaus and Efron.
Vol. XXIX: Sugar – Seven Wise Men]. St. Petersburg: F.А. Brockhaus, I.А. Efron,
1900.
Bydlinski F. Aktuelle Streitfragen um die alternative Kausalität // Festschrift für
Günther Beitzke zum 70. Geburtstag am 26. April 1979 / Hrsg. von O. Sandrock.
Berlin; Boston: De Gruyter, 2020.
Digest of European Tort Law. Vol. 1: Essential Cases on Natural Causation / Ed.
by B. Winiger. H. Koziol, B.A. Koch, R. Zimmermann. Wien: Springer, 2007.
Ehrenzweig A.A. Assurance Oblige – A Comparative Study // Law and Contemporary
Problems. 1950. Vol. 15(3).
Epstein R.A. Toward a General Theory of Tort Law: Strict Liability in Context //
Journal of Tort Law. 2010. Vol. 3.
Geistfeld M.A. The Doctrinal Unity of Alternative Liability and Market-Share
Liability // University of Pennsylvania Law Review. 2006. Vol. 155(2).
German Civil Code. Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch (BGB). Vol. I. Books 1–3: §§ 1–1296.
Article-by-Article Commentary / Ed. by G. Dannemann, R. Schulze, J. Watson (Assistant
Ed.). Munich: C.H. Beck; Baden-Baden: Nomos, 2020.
German Civil Code: Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch (BGB). Vol. I: Books 1–3: §§ 1–1296.
Article-by-Article Commentary / Ed. by G. Dannemann, R. Schulze, J. Watson (Assistant
Ed.). Munich: C.H. Beck; Baden-Baden: Nomos, 2020.
Gordley J. Foundations of Private Law: Property, Tort, Contract, Unjust Enrichment.
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2019.
Gordley J. Tort Law in the Aristotelian Tradition // Philosophical Foundations
of Tort Law / Ed. by D.G. Owen. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995.
Honore T. Responsibility and Fault. Oxford: Hart Publishing, 1999.
Infantino M., Zervogianni E. Summary and Survey of the Results // Causation
in European Tort Law / Ed. by M. Infantino, E. Zervogianni. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 2017.
Jansen N. The Structure of Tort Law / Trans. by S. Steel. Oxford: Oxford University
Press, 2021.
Johnson V.R. Mastering Torts: A Student’s Guide to the Law of Torts. 6th ed. Durham:
Carolina Academic Press, 2018.
Kötz H., Wagner G. Deliktsrecht. 13. Aufl. München: Vahlen, 2016.
Koziol H. Basic Questions of Tort Law from a Germanic Perspective. Wien: Jan
Sramek Verlag KG, 2012.
Kruse C. Alternative Kausalität im Deliktsrecht: Eine historische und vergleichende
Untersuchung. Berlin: Lit, 2006.
Mataja V. Das Recht des Schadenersatzes vom Standpunkte der Nationalökonomie.
Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, 1888.
McBride N.J., Bagshaw R. Tort Law. 6th ed. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited, 2018.
Mullis A., Oliphant K. Torts. 4th ed. London: Palgrave Macmillan Law Masters, 2011.
Oliphant K. Uncertain Factual Causation in the Third Restatement: Some Comparative
Notes // William Mitchell Law Review. 2011. Vol. 37(3).
Oliveira N.M.P. Liability for Alternative Causation and for the Loss of a Chance //
French Civil Liability in Comparative Perspective / Ed. by J. Borghetti, S. W hittaker.
Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2019.
Osborne P.H. The Law of Torts. 5th ed. Toronto: Irwin Law, 2015.
Peel W.E., Goudkamp J. Winfield and Jolowicz on Tort. 20th ed. London: Sweet &
Maxwell, Thomson Reuters, 2020.
Perry S.R. Impossibility of General Strict Liability // Canadian Journal of Law
and Jurisprudence. 1988. Vol. 1(2).
Perry S.R. The Moral Foundations of Tort Law // Iowa Law Review. 1992. Vol. 77(2).
Shavell S. Economic Analysis of Accident Law. Cambridge; London: Harvard University
Press, 2007.
Shavell S. Foundations of Economic Analysis of Law. Cambridge; London: The
Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2004.
Shifts in Compensation between Private and Public Systems / Ed by W.H. van
Boom, M. Faure. Wien: Springer, 2007.
Simmonds N.E. Epstein’s Theory of Strict Tort Liability // Cambridge Law Journal.
1992. Vol. 51(1).
Stapleton J. Uncertain Causes. Asbestos in UK Courts // Uncertain Causation in
Tort Law / Ed. by M. Martin-Casals, D.M. Papayannis. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press, 2016.
Steel S. Proof of Causation in Tort Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
2015.
Tort Law and Liability Insurance / Ed. by G. Wagner. Wien: Springer, 2005.
Turton G. Evidential Uncertainty in Causation in Negligence. London: Bloomsbury
Publishing, 2016.
Van Dam C. European Tort Law. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.
Von Tuhr A. Allgemeiner Teil des Schweizerischen Obligationenrechts. Erster
Halbband. Tübingen: J.С.В. Mohr (Paul Siebeck), 1924.
Wagner G. Tort Law and Liability Insurance // The Geneva Papers on Risk and
Insurance. 2006. No. 31.
Wagner G. Tort Law and Liability Insurance // Tort Law and Economics / Ed. by
M. Faure. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited, 2009.

Information about the author

Lukhmanov M.I. (Moscow, Russia) – Master of Private Law (Russian School for Private Law), PhD Student, Department of Civil Law, Law Faculty, Lomonosov Moscow State University (1 Leninskie Gory, Bldg. 13 (4th education building), GSP-1, Moscow, 119991, Russia; e-mail: m.lukhmanov@yandex.ru).

THE IMPUTATION OF HARM TO A PERSON WHO IS
ECONOMICALLY EASIER TO BEAR ITS CONSEQUENCES
AS AN ARGUMENT FOR SOLVING THE PROBLEM
OF ALTERNATIVE CAUSATION IN TORT LAW

M.I. LUKHMANOV,
Master of Private Law (Russian School for Private Law),
PhD Student, Department of Civil Law, Law Faculty,
Lomonosov Moscow State University

https://doi.org/10.24031/1992-2043-2022-22-1-88-107

This article is devoted to a critical analysis of the argument that damage must be attributed to a person who is economically easier to bear its consequences, in relation to the main area of its application in private law discourse de lege lata, i.e., justification of the phenomenon of strict liability in tort law. It is argued that the main theories arising from this argument turn out to be inapplicable to the problem of alternative causation, despite the occasional use of this argument in case law.


Keywords: alternative causation; causal uncertainty; strict liability; liability insurance.

References

Аристотель. Этика / пер. с древнегреч. Э.Л. Радлова по изд. 1884 г. [Aristotle.
Ethics / Trans. from Ancient Greek by E.L. Radlov] (in Russian). Moscow: Eksmo-
Press, 2019.
Епихина Д.О. Ответственность за совместно причиненный вред [Epikhina D.O.
Liability for Joint Harm] (in Russian) // Bulletin of Economic Justice of the Russian
Federation. 2018. No. 8.
Кривцов А.С. Общее учение об убытках [Krivtsov A.S. The General Doctrine of
Losses] (in Russian). Yuriev: K. Matthiesen Printing House, 1902.
Михайлов В.С. Концепция фактической причинной связи и некоторые про-
блемы ее применения [Mikhailov V.S. Concept of Factual Causation and Several
Issues of Its Practical Application] (in Russian) // Civil Law Review. 2018. No. 3.
Назариков С.В. Некоторые теоретические и практические аспекты причинно-
следственной связи в контексте деликтной ответственности [Nazarikov S.V. Some
Theoretical and Practical Aspects of Causation in the Context of Tort Liability] (in
Russian) // Civil Law Review. 2016. No. 6.
Новгородцев П.И., Покровский И.А. О праве на существование: социально-
философские этюды П.И. Новгородцева, профессора Московского университета,
и И.А. Покровского, профессора С.-Петербургского университета [Novgorodtsev P.I.,
Pokrovskii I.A. On the Right to Exist: Socio-Philosophical Studies of P.I. Novgorodtsev,
Professor at Moscow University, and I.A. Pokrovskii, Professor at St. Petersburg University]
(in Russian). St. Petersburg; Moscow: M.O. Wolf’s Association Publ., 1911.
Покровский И.А. Возмещение вреда и разложение его: дилеммы современно-
го гражданского права в области ответственности за вред и убытки [Pokrovskii I.A.
Compensation for Harm and its Decomposition: Dilemmas of Modern Civil Law in
the Field of Liability for Harm and Losses] (in Russian) // Law Review. 1899. No. 9.
Покровский И.А. Основные проблемы гражданского права [Pokrovskii I.A. Main
Problems of Civil Law] (in Russian). Petrograd: Legal Book Warehouse “Pravo” Publ.,
1917.
Симолин А.А. Основания гражданской ответственности за вред и убытки [Simolin
A.A. Grounds for Civil Liability for Harm and Loss] (in Russian). Kazan: University
Printing House, 1905.
Соловьев В.С. Свобода воли – свобода выбора [Soloviov V.S. Free Will Is Freedom
of Choice] (in Russian) // Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона.
Т. XXIX: Сахар – Семь мудрецов [Encyclopedic Dictionary of Brockhaus and Efron.
Vol. XXIX: Sugar – Seven Wise Men]. St. Petersburg: F.А. Brockhaus, I.А. Efron,
1900.
Bydlinski F. Aktuelle Streitfragen um die alternative Kausalität // Festschrift für
Günther Beitzke zum 70. Geburtstag am 26. April 1979 / Hrsg. von O. Sandrock.
Berlin; Boston: De Gruyter, 2020.
Digest of European Tort Law. Vol. 1: Essential Cases on Natural Causation / Ed.
by B. Winiger. H. Koziol, B.A. Koch, R. Zimmermann. Wien: Springer, 2007.
Ehrenzweig A.A. Assurance Oblige – A Comparative Study // Law and Contemporary
Problems. 1950. Vol. 15(3).
Epstein R.A. Toward a General Theory of Tort Law: Strict Liability in Context //
Journal of Tort Law. 2010. Vol. 3.
Geistfeld M.A. The Doctrinal Unity of Alternative Liability and Market-Share
Liability // University of Pennsylvania Law Review. 2006. Vol. 155(2).
German Civil Code. Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch (BGB). Vol. I. Books 1–3: §§ 1–1296.
Article-by-Article Commentary / Ed. by G. Dannemann, R. Schulze, J. Watson (Assistant
Ed.). Munich: C.H. Beck; Baden-Baden: Nomos, 2020.
German Civil Code: Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch (BGB). Vol. I: Books 1–3: §§ 1–1296.
Article-by-Article Commentary / Ed. by G. Dannemann, R. Schulze, J. Watson (Assistant
Ed.). Munich: C.H. Beck; Baden-Baden: Nomos, 2020.
Gordley J. Foundations of Private Law: Property, Tort, Contract, Unjust Enrichment.
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2019.
Gordley J. Tort Law in the Aristotelian Tradition // Philosophical Foundations
of Tort Law / Ed. by D.G. Owen. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995.
Honore T. Responsibility and Fault. Oxford: Hart Publishing, 1999.
Infantino M., Zervogianni E. Summary and Survey of the Results // Causation
in European Tort Law / Ed. by M. Infantino, E. Zervogianni. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 2017.
Jansen N. The Structure of Tort Law / Trans. by S. Steel. Oxford: Oxford University
Press, 2021.
Johnson V.R. Mastering Torts: A Student’s Guide to the Law of Torts. 6th ed. Durham:
Carolina Academic Press, 2018.
Kötz H., Wagner G. Deliktsrecht. 13. Aufl. München: Vahlen, 2016.
Koziol H. Basic Questions of Tort Law from a Germanic Perspective. Wien: Jan
Sramek Verlag KG, 2012.
Kruse C. Alternative Kausalität im Deliktsrecht: Eine historische und vergleichende
Untersuchung. Berlin: Lit, 2006.
Mataja V. Das Recht des Schadenersatzes vom Standpunkte der Nationalökonomie.
Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, 1888.
McBride N.J., Bagshaw R. Tort Law. 6th ed. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited, 2018.
Mullis A., Oliphant K. Torts. 4th ed. London: Palgrave Macmillan Law Masters, 2011.
Oliphant K. Uncertain Factual Causation in the Third Restatement: Some Comparative
Notes // William Mitchell Law Review. 2011. Vol. 37(3).
Oliveira N.M.P. Liability for Alternative Causation and for the Loss of a Chance //
French Civil Liability in Comparative Perspective / Ed. by J. Borghetti, S. W hittaker.
Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2019.
Osborne P.H. The Law of Torts. 5th ed. Toronto: Irwin Law, 2015.
Peel W.E., Goudkamp J. Winfield and Jolowicz on Tort. 20th ed. London: Sweet &
Maxwell, Thomson Reuters, 2020.
Perry S.R. Impossibility of General Strict Liability // Canadian Journal of Law
and Jurisprudence. 1988. Vol. 1(2).
Perry S.R. The Moral Foundations of Tort Law // Iowa Law Review. 1992. Vol. 77(2).
Shavell S. Economic Analysis of Accident Law. Cambridge; London: Harvard University
Press, 2007.
Shavell S. Foundations of Economic Analysis of Law. Cambridge; London: The
Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2004.
Shifts in Compensation between Private and Public Systems / Ed by W.H. van
Boom, M. Faure. Wien: Springer, 2007.
Simmonds N.E. Epstein’s Theory of Strict Tort Liability // Cambridge Law Journal.
1992. Vol. 51(1).
Stapleton J. Uncertain Causes. Asbestos in UK Courts // Uncertain Causation in
Tort Law / Ed. by M. Martin-Casals, D.M. Papayannis. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press, 2016.
Steel S. Proof of Causation in Tort Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
2015.
Tort Law and Liability Insurance / Ed. by G. Wagner. Wien: Springer, 2005.
Turton G. Evidential Uncertainty in Causation in Negligence. London: Bloomsbury
Publishing, 2016.
Van Dam C. European Tort Law. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.
Von Tuhr A. Allgemeiner Teil des Schweizerischen Obligationenrechts. Erster
Halbband. Tübingen: J.С.В. Mohr (Paul Siebeck), 1924.
Wagner G. Tort Law and Liability Insurance // The Geneva Papers on Risk and
Insurance. 2006. No. 31.
Wagner G. Tort Law and Liability Insurance // Tort Law and Economics / Ed. by
M. Faure. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited, 2009.

Information about the author

Lukhmanov M.I. (Moscow, Russia) – Master of Private Law (Russian School for Private Law), PhD Student, Department of Civil Law, Law Faculty, Lomonosov Moscow State University (1 Leninskie Gory, Bldg. 13 (4th education building), GSP-1, Moscow, 119991, Russia; e-mail: m.lukhmanov@yandex.ru).